COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Voucher specimens of all the plants have been deposited in the Herbarium of the Herbal Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, KNUST, with defined ID numbers. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. traditional health practioners, IP. Forty of these, cited more than five times by 20% of the traditional healers, were collected from the Ejisu-Juaben district for further investigation. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. Thirty traditional healers participated in the survey. All the clinical strains selected for the assay had the ability to produce biofilms. Medicine in your backyard: How Indigenous peoples have used medicinal plants A program available at Wanuskewin Heritage Park shows people plants … Contamination of Medicinal Plants: Implications for Indigenous Health A new study will trace the legacy of uranium mining on commercially available medicinal plants. Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. Geneva. Ciprofloxacin was used as the reference drug. Fraction CF1 (9.5 g) was further purified by column chromatography to obtain sixty-three fractions bulked into six subfractions, which were labeled HF1, HF2, HF3, HF4, HF5, and HF6. 1.9K likes. Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Malik RN, Shinwari ZK. Medicinal plants for gastrointestinal diseases among the Kuki-Chin ethnolinguistic groups across Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar: A comparative and network analysis study. To qualitatively investigate the biofilm-producing abilities of the selected bacteria, the method described by Amaral et al. The alkaloid extract (50 g) was loaded onto a glass column (60 cm × 3 cm) packed with silica gel (70–230 mesh). This put natural products with antibiofilm activity in the spotlight for a wide range of applications to address health and industrial issues. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Fraction HF1 (1.19 g) was subjected to purification by preparative HPLC [MeOH−H2O + 0.1% HCOOH 98 : 2, 2 mL min−1] to yield pure compounds, namely, HF1A, HF1B, and HF1C. (Supplementary Materials). Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora of Harighal, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. These data can serve as evidential support for the clinical development of a number of medicinal plant remedies as adjuvant therapy. Briefly, sterile molten Mueller Hinton agar (20 mL each) was seeded with 100 μL of standardized test organism and poured into 90 mm sterile Petri dishes. Umair M, Altaf M, Bussmann RW, Abbasi AM. Indigenous Medicinal Plants Distribution of Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants Sl. Traditional uses of medicinal plants reported by the indigenous communities and local herbal practitioners of Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas Pakistan. New alkaloids from the husks of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. Plants are providing reliable therapy since time immemorial. They were then stored in a cool dry place until required for use. H. Ahmed, “A phyto pharmacological review on a medicinal plant: K. Patrice, P. B. Véronique, L. David, and E. François-Xavier, “Antibacterial activities of the extracts and conessine from, A. Yemoa, J. Gbenou, D. Affolabi et al., “Beninese medicinal plants as a source of antimycobacterial agents: bioguided fractionation and in vitro activity of alkaloids isolated from, Y. P. Hoekou, T. Tchacondo, S. D. Karou et al., “Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of, P. M. Abreu, E. S. Martins, O. Kayser et al., “Antimicrobial, antitumor and antileishmania screening of medicinal plants from Guinea-Bissau,”, B. Odusina and S. Ibrahim, “Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activities and quantity estimates of bioactive compounds in extracts of, M. Janot, A. Cave, and R. Goutarel, “Sterol alkaloids. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Seventy medicinal plants used by traditional practitioners for the treatment of skin infections and wounds were documented from the ethnobotanical survey. Briefly, 100 μL of sterile liquid broth medium was inoculated with 10 μL of standardized overnight culture of the selected bacterium, and volumes of plant extracts reconstituted in distilled water were added to obtain concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/mL. Demographic data of local informants…. To this end, the indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and non-plant remedies has not been systematically documented and studied in the Dawuro … Holaphyllamine and holamine, alkaloids from, J. No. 2. Some extracts of neotropical rainforest plants have shown remarkable biofilm inhibitory effects [1,6]. Holarrhena floribunda stem bark extract has strong biofilm formation inhibition properties, which could be … Steroidal alkaloids are the major types of phytoconstituents identified in H. floribunda [16,27,28]. 1. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Ejisu-Juaben district to obtain comprehensive data on plant-based remedies commonly used by traditional healers to treat infection. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. 1997). The antibacterial activity demonstrated by the crude extract and the solvent fractions of the H. floribunda stem bark in the current work is consistent with previous reports on the same plant [22–26]. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The strains were aseptically subcultured into sterile Mueller Hinton broth and incubated at 37° C for 24 hours prior to use. 5) and filled with the extracts at concentrations of 5 mg/mL. Previous reports that were used to support this study are cited at relevant places within the text as references. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. In this study, medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of infections in the Ejisu-Juaben district have been documented through an ethnobotanical survey. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Among the tested plants, Holarrhena floribunda stem bark exhibited the highest biofilm formation inhibitory activity against S. aureus. He comes from a family with a long tradition of herbalists (amaXhwele) where indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants was passed on from one generation to the next. Briefly, a sterile glass slide placed in a sterile petri dish was overlaid with 20 mL of Mueller Hinton broth seeded with 100 μL of standardized culture (∼108 CFU/mL). Fig 2. A … Resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (A), Streptococcus pyogenes clinical strain (B), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (C), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (D), and Klebsiella pneumonia clinical strain (E) were obtained from the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, KNUST, and used for the study. S. aureus was therefore selected for the investigation of biofilm formation inhibitory property of H. floribunda. Coarsely powdered stem bark of H. floribunda (3.49 kg) was Soxhlet-extracted successively using 3 L each of petroleum ether (pet-ether), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol (MeOH) for 48 hours. One hundred and fifty grams each of the forty selected plants were dried in the shade for 7 days, milled into a coarse powder using a warring blender, and extracted with 80% methanol by cold maceration. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. This work was supported by the Building Stronger Universities (BSU) Grant, WP3. Traditional indigenous medicinal plants The sacred medicines Tobacco, sage, cedar, and sweetgrass are some of the fundamental and most important traditional medicines of … This work has provided comprehensive data on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of infection in Ghana. Elikplim Kwesi Ampofo, Isaac Kingsley Amponsah, Evelyn Asante-Kwatia, Francis Ackah Armah, Philip Kobla Atchoglo, Abraham Yeboah Mensah, "Indigenous Medicinal Plants as Biofilm Inhibitors for the Mitigation of Antimicrobial Resistance", Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. Native mints (Mentha spp.) 2020 Oct 30;15(10):e0240555. , which reported synergistic antibacterial activity of steroidal alkaloids isolated from Holarrhena antidysenterica against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. eCollection 2017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171896. Ethno-veterinary uses of Poaceae in Punjab, Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Seventy plants used by the traditional practitioners for the treatment of skin, wounds, and other infections were documented from the survey (Supplementary Material-Table S1). Pakistan has a great diversity in medicinal flora and people use these ethno-medicines to deal with many skin problems. 2017 Feb 13;12(2):e0171896. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to document medicinal plants used by traditional healers in the Ejisu-Juaben district in the Ashanti region of Ghana to treat infections and to further investigate the antibiofilm formation properties of selected plants in resisting pathogenic bacteria. PLoS One. Quantitative assessment of biofilm formation was done using the Crystal Violet (CV) assay as described by Sasirekha et al. In a previous study, the hydroalcoholic extract H. antidysenterica inhibited the formation of biofilm in opportunistic pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium . All organic solvents were of analytical grade and obtained from BDH, Laboratory Supplies (Merck Ltd, Lutterworth, UK). 2021 Mar 1;267:113200. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113200. Many indigenous plants are used locally for herbal and medicinal purposes. The district lies within a semi-deciduous forest zone where flora and fauna is diverse and composed of different species of both economic and ornamental importance. These compounds have been previously reported from H. floribunda and other Holarrhena species [15,16,19]. The resulting solution was made distinctly alkaline with 70 mL of strong ammonia. It is estimated that approximately 34% of medicinal plants are used to treat diseases of the digestive tract. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Forty medicinal plants cited more than five times by 20% of the traditional healers (Percentage of respondents with the knowledge about the use of a particular plant) were investigated for antibacterial activity (shown by asterisk ‘’on Table S1, Supplementary Material). Indigenous uses of medicinal plants in North Garo Hills, Meghalaya, NE India Sharma M. * , Sharma C.L. This is the time to sweat more and breed less as we research more on indigenous medicinal plants for yield of innovations and inventions before the knowledge holders disappear to … They comprised 43% men and 57% women aged between 21 and 80 years. Specialists could administer such medicines as herbal teas, preparations to be chewed and swallowed, poultices, inhaled vapours, or a variety of other applications. Further in this study, the biofilm formation inhibitory effect of selected medicinal plants against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Many Caribbean indigenous plants now identified solely as food crops were also valued by my ancestors for their medicinal properties. Triterpenes with inhibitory effects against P. aeruginosa biofilms were isolated from Diospyros dendo . A cutoff OD was determined from the negative control and used to separate nonbiofilm from biofilm-producing microorganisms following standard methods . Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Medicinal plant species with high RPL values should be screened for comprehensive phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Photomicrographs of bacterial biofilms were recorded at a magnification of ×100 . Bioassay-guided fractionation of an alkaloidal extract prepared from the methanol fraction led to the isolation of three steroidal alkaloids, namely, holonamine, holadienine, and conessine. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional knowledge is significant in primary health care system. This could be useful in novel drug discovery and to validate the ethomendicinal knowledge. and Schinz: holarrheline, holadienine, holaromine and holaline,”, K. Appiah, C. Oppong, H. Mardani et al., “Medicinal plants used in the Ejisu-Juaben municipality, Southern Ghana: an ethnobotanical study,”, N. K. Archer, M. J. Mazaitis, J. W. Costerton, J. G. Leid, M. E. Powers, and M. E. Shirtliff, “, A. M. Lannang, S. Anjum, J. G. Tangmouo, K. Krohn, and M. I. Choudhary, “Conessine isolated from. eCollection 2020 Dec. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. The methanol extracts of the eight plants that showed antibacterial activity were further tested for biofilm inhibitory activity against S. aureus. After incubation, the planktonic cells were aspirated and the wells were washed with sterile water to remove the free-floating bacteria. Among the isolated compounds, HF1A had the highest activity with an MBIC of 0.25 mg/mL toward S. aureus. Indigenous medicinal plants are relevant in both developing and developed nations of the world as sources of drugs or herbal extracts for various chemotherapeutic purposes ( Purbrick 1998 ; Farombi 2004 ). The agar well diffusion method as described by Jorgenson et al. Map of Ejisu-Juaben district (Source: Ghana Statistical Service). USA.gov. Proportional contributions of plant part in herbal preparations. One of these communities is based in the Ejisu-Juaben district where the use of herbal medicine is widespread and highly diverse due to the floristic and cultural diversity of various communities . Proportional contributions of plant part…. Biofilms have great significance for public health because biofilm-associated microorganisms exhibit dramatically high resistance to antimicrobial agents than planktonic forms . was used, and the method description partly reproduces their wording . Copyright © 2020 Elikplim Kwesi Ampofo et al. PLoS One. Slides were then stained with 0.1% crystal violet for 15 minutes, washed with distilled water, air dried, and observed under the microscope. Among families Lamiaceae dominated over other families by donating 08 medicinal plant species followed by Apiaceae (07) and Asteraceae (06). Indigenous Medicinal Plants. Quantitative Ethnobotanical Study of Indigenous Knowledge on Medicinal Plants Used by the Tribal Communities of Gokand Valley, District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Documentation of such useful medicinal plants is important to facilitate future research on the efficacy of these plants and allow for the appropriate incorporation of the most effective herbal remedies into primary health care. They were authenticated according to their respective features on selective media, maintained in 30% glycerol broth and stored at −40°C in a frost-free freezer. The vernacular names of plants, uses, methods of preparation, and the administration of remedies were documented. Results: Table S1: medicinal plants used for the management of skin and wound infections as well as other infective conditions in the Ejisu-Juaben district of Ghana. The antibacterial activity of Holarrhena species has been attributed to the presence of steroidal alkaloids [22,32–34]. eCollection 2020. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241705. The authors received no specific funding for this work. In the past two decades, the links between bio-cultural diversity and the richness of plant species in South Africa have contributed to ongoing attempts to develop traditional medicines for use in the modern complementary and alternative medicines sector. Forty medicinal plants cited more than five times by 20% of the traditional healers were investigated for antibacterial activity by the agar diffusion assay. The authors appreciate the support and assistance of the Ghana National Association of Traditional Healers Ashanti region (GNATH) for their assistance. Its medicinal values are: All the traditional healers interviewed belonged to the Akan tribe. | G. vignei, methanol extract (MGV) on the other hand, reduced the biofilm production of S. aureus to a moderate biofilm producer at concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/mL (Figure 4(b)). 26. Approximately 3,000 species are used by an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers (Van Wyk et al. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240555. Catalan ethnoflora: a meta-analytic approach to life forms and geographic territories. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and ethnodiseases such as diarrhea, stomachache, dysentery, “empacho” (blockage), and bile is a common strategy among indigenous communities. More than 500 plants were used in indigenous medicine. III. The antibiofilm activity of Azadirachta indica extract was employed to mitigate microbiologically influenced corrosion in underground pipe lines as an environmentally benign way of managing corrosion . In a statement yesterday, Prof Chinsembu said current challenges in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 should open new prospects in the search for novel drugs from indigenous medicinal plants and other natural products. The activity of the individual isolated compounds was lower than the crude alkaloid fraction, suggesting the possible role of synergism in the activity of the steroidal alkaloids. Epub 2020 Aug 1. See actions taken by … A total 64 indigenous medicinal plants were reported from 32 different families. indigenous peoples). Detail about the number of cited plants from the respective plant family is presented in Fig. Ethno-medicinal uses of vertebrates in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape, central Nepal. From calculations, the following parameters were set: OD < 0.12 as weak biofilm producers; OD between 0.12 and 0.24 as moderate biofilm producers; and OD > 0.24 as high biofilm producers. Zahoor M, Yousaf Z, Aqsa T, Haroon M, Saleh N, Aftab A, Javed S, Qadeer M, Ramazan H. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. This is however the first report of the biofilm formation inhibitory effect of H. floribunda and the isolated plant constituents. The present work is the first study on ethnobotanical uses of 124 MPs species used by the local tribal communities of Jazan province in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia. The wells were then washed with sterile water and dried. Details of HPLC experimental procedures are provided in supplementary data (available here). Eight out of the forty plants exhibited antimicrobial activities as determined by the zones of inhibition of susceptible microbes (Table 1). J Ethnopharmacol. The extracts obtained were concentrated on a rotary evaporator under low temperature and further dried to afford the pet-ether (PHE-5.2%), ethyl acetate extract (EHE-19.85% w/w), and a methanol extract (MHE-16.15% w/w). That I have included food crops as medicinal plants again speaks to the overall concept of The alkaloids were then extracted with 2.5 L of chloroform. For a long time, the people of Saudi Arabia have been using medicinal plants (MPs) as conventional medicine to heal diverse human and livestock diseases. Zones of growth inhibition were determined after incubation. 2020 Apr 6;251:112415. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112415. (a-b) Graphs showing the effect of different concentrations of extracts on the amount of biofilm formed (optical density-OD) by. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Also known as the boegoe plant, buchu is used in different forms as a medicine plant, either when making tea or crushed and mixed in vinegar. Aziz MA, Khan AH, Adnan M, Izatullah I. The plants were distributed across 63 genera belonging to 31 families, mostly Fabaceae (9), Euphorbiaceae (6), Moraceae (6), and Meliaceae (6). eCollection 2020. Fig 3. The names and the authenticity of the plant species were confirmed using the Electronic Plant Information Centre (ePIC, http://epic.kew.org/). MEDICINAL AND CULTURAL USE OF INDIGENOUS PLANTS Indigenous medicinal plants are used by more than 60% of South Africans in their health care needs or cultural practices (Table 1). The amount of biofilm formed recorded as optical density in the presence of different concentrations of PHE, EHE, MHE, AKL and the isolated compounds toward S. aureus is demonstrated in Figure 6(a)–6(b). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Seventy medicinal plants were documented from the survey (Supplementary Material-Table S1). Mean zones of inhibition of extracts in agar well diffusion assay. This ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, specifically in the Ejisu-Juaben district (Figure 1). All participants provided information on the methods of practice, vernacular names of anti-infective plant remedies employed by them, methods of preparation, and administration of these remedies. In keeping with the traditional customs, appropriate gifts and drinks were given to the participants for the time and the courtesies extended to us. The survey data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 for windows and Graph Pad Prism (Version 5 for windows, San Diego, USA). Conessine (HF1C) is a well-established constituent of H. floribunda . Kabo khaji Katha Mimosaceae HD 2 Linn. 2019 Feb 1;15(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s13002-019-0285-4. 271. Another study has shown that compounds with efflux pump inhibition may also cause biofilm disruption . Fig 2. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. The inclusion criterion for the survey was that the practitioner used herbal medicine. Indigenous Plants for Health, Inc. To ensure cellular quiescence, this dilution was maintained at 4°C. An overview on ethnobotanico-pharmacological studies carried out in Morocco, from 1991 to 2015: Systematic review (part 1). were remedies for coughs and colds, while the gum from gum trees, which is … The petri dishes were allowed to stand for 1 hour at 25°C to allow for diffusion of extracts into the seeded agar and then incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Environmental Service Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. After solidification, equivalent wells were drilled in each of the petri dishes using a sterile cork borer (No. The amount of biofilm formed was quantified by adding 200 μL of 95% ethanol/acetic acid mixture (1:1) and the optical density (OD) of the resulting solution was measured at 595 nm. J PubMed From the experiments, six out of the eight plant extracts failed to significantly inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus at concentrations up to 10 mg/mL (Figure 4(a)–4(b)). 2020 Dec 14;6(12):e05562. After 24 and 48 hours of incubation, the slides were washed with normal saline to remove the floating planktonic bacteria, and the biofilm was fixed by heating the slide. A. Poku, S. Boateng et al., “Integration for coexistence? 2014 Feb 27;152(1):135-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.037. Njoroge G, Bussmann R, Gemmill B, Newton L, Ngumi V. Utilization of weed species as source of traditional medicines in central Kenya. and Marak, P.N. The majority of indigenes in the rural areas of Ghana use herbal medicines for their primary health care. In the rural and peri-urban areas like the Ejisu-Juaben district in the Ashanti region of Ghana, access to medical care is limited, and most indigenes rely on herbal medicine practitioners for their primary health needs. 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