The results of the review are presented in Table 1, and the examples will be elaborated upon shortly. Background: Previous validity studies of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were limited by yielding poor factor loading values and eventually skipping the critical process addressing convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. So, we will … One of the key benefits of CFA is that it allows researchers to provide evidence for the validity of internal factor structure of measurement scales. • Assessments of convergent and discriminant validity rely on a well-founded a priori predictions about which scales should correlate with a … discriminant validity. Without the crucial process, it was risky that past studies insisted DASS-21 be ready for use. This paper investigates some assumptions regarding: 1) the assessment of discriminant validity; and 2) what confirmatory factor analysis accomplishes. In order to do that the constructs are analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) which is commonly used for validity issues. The rule is that variables should relate more strongly to their own factor than to another factor. However, with such advances come concerns that techniques may be misinterpreted by researchers. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a multivariate statistical procedure that is used to test how well the measured variables represent the number of constructs. discriminant validity for use in understanding better the health literacy of older adults and determining ... confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM). ... this pattern of relationships supports the construct validity—i.e., convergent and discriminant validities—of the SF-12's component summary scores. Specifically, the present investigation used item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity analysis, and an analysis of social desirability to test the validity of the five integrity dimensions identified by Green (1999): Concern for Others, Conscientiousness, Emotional Control, Fairness, and Honesty. Results: The easiest scale to obtain a high score was “Social support for health” and the hardest, “Navigating the But convergent validity is not fulfill. 2- Assume in the first order confirmatory factor analysis, a construct with four latent factor and 20 observed variables is fitted. Confirmatory factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the fit of a 2-factor model that underlies the PCS and MCS and to examine the equivalence of the factors across both study groups. This issue is critical since misinterpretation could cause erroneous findings. confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant validity assessment. 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